1: Chemical Product Identification

Product Name: Ammonium hydroxide
Catalogue Codes: SLA3667, SLA3490, SLA1144
CAS#: 1336-21-6
RTECS: BQ9625000
TSCA: TSCA 8(b) inventory: Ammonium hydroxide
CI#: Not applicable.
Synonym:   Aqueous Ammonia; Strong Ammonia Solution; Stronger Ammonia Water
Chemical Name: Not applicable.
Chemical Formula: Not applicable.

2. Composition and Information on Ingredients 

3: Hazards Identification

Potential Acute Health Effects: Very hazardous in case of skin contact (corrosive, irritant, permeator), of eye contact (irritant), of ingestion, Non-corrosive to the eyes. Non-corrosive for lungs. Liquid or spray mist may produce tissue damage particularly on mucous membranes of eyes, mouth and respiratory tract. Skin contact may produce burns. Inhalation of the spray mist may produce severe irritation of respiratory tract, characterized by coughing, choking, or shortness of breath. Severe over-exposure can result in death. Inflammation of the eye is characterized by redness, watering, and itching. Skin inflammation is characterized by itching, scaling, reddening, or, occasionally, blistering.

Potential Chronic Health Effects:


MUTAGENIC EFFECTS: Mutagenic for bacteria and/or yeast. [Ammonia, anhydrous].


DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY: Not available. The substance is toxic to upper respiratory tract, skin, eyes. Repeated or prolonged exposure to the substance can produce target organs damage. Repeated or prolonged contact with spray mist may produce chronic eye irritation and severe skin irritation. Repeated or prolonged exposure to spray mist may produce respiratory tract irritation leading to frequent attacks of bronchial infection. Repeated exposure to a highly toxic material may produce general deterioration of health by an accumulation in one or many human organs.

4: First Aid Measures

Eye Contact: Check for and remove any contact lenses. Immediately flush eyes with running water for at least 15 minutes, keeping eyelids open. Cold water may be used. Get medical attention immediately. Finish by rinsing thoroughly with running water to avoid a possible infection.

Skin Contact: In case of contact, immediately flush skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Cover the irritated skin with an emollient. Cold water may be used. Wash clothing before reuse. Thoroughly clean shoes before reuse. Get medical attention immediately.

Serious Skin Contact: Wash with a disinfectant soap and cover the contaminated skin with an anti-bacterial cream. Seek immediate medical attention.

Inhalation: If inhaled, remove to fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical attention immediately.

Serious Inhalation: Evacuate the victim to a safe area as soon as possible. Loosen tight clothing such as a collar, tie, belt or waistband. If breathing is difficult, administer oxygen. If the victim is not breathing, perform mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. WARNING: It may be hazardous to the person providing aid to give mouth-to-mouth resuscitation when the inhaled material is toxic, infectious or corrosive. Seek medical attention.

Ingestion: If swallowed, do not induce vomiting unless directed to do so by medical personnel. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Loosen tight clothing such as a collar, tie, belt or waistband. Get medical attention immediately.

Serious Ingestion: Not available.

5: Fire and Explosion Data

Flammability of the Product:                                                Non-flammable.

Auto-Ignition Temperature:                                                  Not applicable.

Flash Points:                                                                             Not applicable.

Flammable Limits:                                                                   Not applicable.

Products of Combustion:                                                       Hazardous decomposition include Nitric oxide, and ammonia fumes

Fire Hazards in Presence of Various Substances:               Not applicable.

Explosion Hazards in Presence of Various Substances:     Non-explosive in presence of open flames and sparks, of shocks.

Fire Fighting Media and Instructions:                                   Not applicable.

Special Remarks on Fire Hazards:                                         Not available.

Special Remarks on Explosion Hazards:                                Forms explosive compounds with many heavy metals such as silver, lead, zinc and their halide salts. It can form shock sensitive compounds with halogens, mercury oxide, and silver oxide.

6: Accidental Release Measures

Small Spill: Dilute with water and mop up or absorb with an inert dry material and place in an appropriate waste disposal container. If necessary: Neutralize the residue with a dilute solution of acetic acid.

Large Spill: Corrosive liquid. Poisonous liquid. Stop leak if without risk. Absorb with DRY earth, sand or other non-combustible material. Do not get water inside container. Do not touch spilled material. Use water spray curtain to divert vapor drift. Use water spray to reduce vapours. Prevent entry into sewers, basements or confined areas; dike if needed. Call for assistance on disposal. Neutralize the residue with a dilute solution of acetic acid. Be careful that the product is not present at a concentration level above TLV. Check TLV on the MSDS and with local authorities.

7: Handling and Storage


Keep locked up. Keep container dry. Do not ingest. Do not breathe gas/fumes/ vapor/spray. Never add water to this product. In case of insufficient ventilation, wear suitable respiratory equipment. If ingested, seek medical advice immediately and show the container or the label. Avoid contact with skin and eyes. Keep away from incompatibles such as metals, acids.


Keep container tightly closed. Keep container in a cool, well-ventilated area. Do not store above 25°C (77°F).

8: Exposure Controls/Personal Protection

Engineering Controls:

Provide exhaust ventilation or other engineering controls to keep the airborne concentrations of vapours below their respective threshold limit value. Ensure that eyewash stations and safety showers are proximal to the work-station location.

Personal Protection:

Face shield. Full suit. Vapor respirator. Be sure to use an approved/certified respirator or equivalent. Gloves. Boots.

Personal Protection in Case of a Large Spill:

Splash goggles. Full suit. Vapor respirator. Boots. Gloves. A self-contained breathing apparatus should be used to avoid inhalation of the product. Suggested protective clothing might not be sufficient; consult a specialist BEFORE handling this product.

Exposure Limits:

TWA: 25 (ppm) from ACGIH (TLV) [United States] TWA: 50 STEL: 35 (ppm) from OSHA (PEL) [United States] TWA: 25 STEL: 35 from NIOSH Consult local authorities for acceptable exposure limits.

9: Physical and Chemical Properties

Physical state and appearance:                                        Liquid.

odour:                                                                                     Ammonia-like (Strong.)

Taste:                                                                                     Acrid.

Molecular Weight:                                                              35.05

Colour:                                                                                    Colourless.

pH (1% soln/water):                                                       11.6 [Basic.] This is the actual pH in a 1 N solution.

Boiling Point:                                                                       Not available

Melting Point:                                                                     -69.2°C (-92.6°F)

Critical Temperature:                                                          Not available.

Specific Gravity:                                                                   0.898 (Water = 1)

Vapor Pressure:                                                                   287.9 kPa (@ 20°C)

Vapor Density:                                                                     Not available

Volatility:                                                                              Not available.

odour Threshold:                                                                  5 – 50 ppm as ammonia

Water/Oil Dist. Coeff.:                                                      Not available.

Iconicity (in Water):                                                            Not available.

Dispersion Properties:                                                      See solubility in water

Solubility:                                                                            Easily soluble in cold water.

Section 10:                                                                         Stability and Reactivity Data

Stability:                                                                             The product is stable.

Instability Temperature:                                                  Not available.

Conditions of Instability:                                                Incompatible materials, high temperatures

Incompatibility with various substances:                    Highly reactive with metals. Reactive with acids. Slightly reactive to reactive with oxidizing agents.

Corrosivity:                                                                        Extremely corrosive in presence of zinc, of copper. Corrosive in presence of aluminium. Non-corrosive in presence of glass, of stainless steel (304), of stainless steel (316).

Special Remarks on Reactivity:                                       Incompatible with the following: Organic acids, amides, organic anhydrides, isocyanates, vinyl acetate, epichlorohydrin, aldehydes, Acrolein, Acrylic acid, chlorosulfonic acid, dimethyl sulphate, fluorine, gold + aqua regia, hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid, hydrogen peroxide, iodine, nitric acid, oleum, propiolactone, propylene oxide, silver nitrate, silver oxide, silver oxide + ethyl alcohol, nitromethane, silver permanganate, sulfuric acid, halogens. Forms explosive compounds with many heavy metals (silver, lead, zinc) and halide salts.

Special Remarks on Corrosivity:                                     Dissolves copper and zinc. Corrosive to aluminium and its alloys. Corrosive to galvanized surfaces. Severe corrosive effect on brass and bronze

Polymerization:                                                                 Will not occur.

11: Toxicological Information

Routes of Entry: Absorbed through skin. Dermal contact. Eye contact. Inhalation. Ingestion.

Toxicity to Animals: Acute oral toxicity (LD50): 350 mg/kg [Rat].

Chronic Effects on Humans:

MUTAGENIC EFFECTS: Mutagenic for bacteria and/or yeast. [Ammonium hydroxide]. May cause damage to the following organs: mucous membranes, skin, eyes.

Other Toxic Effects on Humans: Very hazardous in case of skin contact (corrosive, irritant, permeator), of ingestion, Hazardous in case of eye contact (corrosive), of inhalation (lung corrosive).

Special Remarks on Toxicity to Animals: Highly toxic to aquatic organisms

Special Remarks on Chronic Effects on Humans: May affect genetic material based on tests with microorganisms and animals. May cause cancer (tumorigenic) based on animal data. No human data found at this time.  (Ammonia, anhydrous)

Special Remarks on other Toxic Effects on Humans:

Acute Potential Health Effects:

Skin: Causes severe irritation. Causes skin burns. May cause deep, penetrating ulcers of the

skin. Contact with skin may cause staining, inflammation, and thickening of the skin.

Eye: Contact with liquid or vapor causes severe burns and possible irreversible eye damage

including corneal injury and cataracts.

Inhalation: Causes severe irritation of the upper respiratory tract with coughing, burns,

breathing difficulty. May cause acute pulmonary enema, pneumoconiosis, fibrosis, and even

coma. It is a respiratory stimulant when inhaled at lower concentrations. It may also affect

behaviour/ central nervous system (convulsions, seizures, ataxia, tremor), cardiovascular

system (increase in blood pressure and pulse rate).

Ingestion: Harmful if swallowed. Affects the Gastrointestinal tract (burns, swelling of the

lips, mouth, and larynx, throat constriction, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, shock, and may

cause severe and permanent damage), liver, and urinary system (kidneys) May affect

behaviour (convulsions, seizures, ataxia, excitement).

Chronic Potential Health Effects: Ingestion: May cause effects like those of acute


Inhalation: Repeated exposure to low concentrations may cause bronchitis with cough,

phlegm, and/or shortness of breath. May also cause liver and kidney damage, and affect the

brain, and blood. Eye: May cause corneal damage and the development of cataracts and

glaucoma. Skin: Repeated skin contact to low concentrations may cause dryness, itching, and

redness (dermatitis)

12: Ecological Information

Ecotoxicity: Ecotoxicity in water (LC50): 0.1 ppm 24 hours [Rainbow trout]. 8.2mg/l 96 hours [Fathead minnow]. 0.1 ppm 48 hours [Bluegill].

BOD5 and COD: Not available.

Products of Biodegradation: Possibly hazardous short-term degradation products are not likely. However, long term degradation products may arise.

Toxicity of the Products of Biodegradation: The products of degradation are less toxic than the product itself.

Special Remarks on the Products of Biodegradation: Not available.

13: Disposal Considerations

Waste Disposal:

Waste must be disposed of in accordance with federal, state and local environmental control regulations.

14: Transport Information

DOT Classification: Class 8: Corrosive material

Identification: Ammonia Solution UNNA: 2672 PG: III

Special Provisions for Transport: Not available.

15: Other Regulatory Information

Other Regulations:

OSHA: Hazardous of Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200). EINECS: This product is on the European Inventory of Existing Commercial Chemical Substances.

Protective Equipment: Gloves. Full suit. Vapor respirator. Be sure to use an approved/certified respirator or equivalent. Wear appropriate respirator when ventilation is inadequate. Face shield.

16: Other Information

References: Not available.

Other Special Considerations: Not available.


All information and instructions provided in this Material Safety Data Sheet in respect of the substance is given solely in terms of the provisions of the Occupational Health and Safety Act No 85 of 1993

and Regulations (“the Act”), is based on scientific and technical knowledge as at the date indicated on this MS Material Safety Data Sheet and is presented in good faith to be correct.

The information and instructions provided in this MSDS apply only to the substance in its present form and not to any formulation or mix, in which event it is the sole responsibility of the user of the substance as formulated and/or mixed to investigate and establish any danger which may arise out of its use, wherever such user may be situated.

It is the sole responsibility of the person in receipt of this Material Safety Data Sheet wherever such recipient may be situated, to ensure that the information provided is communicated to and understood by any person who may meet the substance in any place and in any manner whatsoever. If such recipient produces formulations or mixes using the substance, then it is such recipient’s sole responsibility to comply with the provisions of the Act in respect of the provision of the necessary Material Safety Data Sheet, or to comply with any other applicable legislation.